AP U.S. Government Notes

Chapter 20: Making Foreign and Defense Policy


Realism – A theory of international relations that focuses on the tendency of nations to operate from self-interest.

Idealism – A theory of international relations that focuses on the hope the nations will act together to solve international problems and promote peace.

Isolationism – The desire to avoid international entanglement altogether.

Internationalism – The belief that nations must engage in international problem solving.

Unilateralism – A philosophy that encourages individual nations to act on their own when facing threats from other nations.

Bush Doctrine – A policy adopted by the Bush administration in 2001 that asserts America’s right to attack any nation that has weapons of mass destruction that might be used against U.S. interests at home or abroad.

Multilateralism – A philosophy that encourages individual nations tacked together to solve international problems.

Hard power – The reliance on economic and military strength to solve international problems.

Soft power – The reliance on diplomacy and negotiation to solve international problems.

Theory of deterrence – A theory that is based on creating enough military strength to convince other nations not to attack first.

Weapons of mass destruction – Biological, chemical, or nuclear weapons that can cause a massive number of deaths in a single use.

Normal trade relations – Trade status granted as part of an international trade policy that gives a nation the same favorable trade concessions and tariffs that the best trading partners receive.

National Intelligence Director – The Federal government’s primary intelligence officer, responsible for overseeing all national intelligence agencies and providing advice to the President on terrorist threats.

Bipartisanship – A policy that emphasizes a united front and cooperation between the major political parties, especially on sensitive foreign policy issues.

Economic sanctions – Denial of export, import, or financial relations with the target country in an effort to change that nation’s policies.


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How to cite this note (with MLA)

Aboukhadijeh, Feross. "Chapter 20: Making Foreign and Defense Policy" StudyNotes.org. StudyNotes, Inc., 17 Nov. 2012. Web. 23 Oct. 2014. <//www.apstudynotes.org/us-government/vocabulary/chapter-20-making-foreign-and-defense-policy/>.
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