AP European History Notes

Chapter 22: The Revolution in Energy and Industry

  1.  The Industrial Revolution in England
    1. ​Eighteenth-Century Origins
      1. The expanding Atlantic economy of the eighteenth century served mercantilist England well and the colonial empire, helped by strong position in Latin America and in the African slave trade provided a growing market for English manufactured goods
      2. It was much cheaper to ship goods by water and no part of England was more than 20 miles from navigable water and in the 1770s, a canal-building boom enhanced this natural advantage and provided easy movement of England’s enormous deposits of iron and coal, critical raw materials in Europe’s early industrial age
      3. Agriculture played a central role in bringing about the Industrial Revolution; English farmers second only to Dutch in 1700, and continually adopted new methods
        1. The result, especially before 1760, was a period of bountiful crops and low food prices and families could spend more on manufactured goods (instead of all food)
        2. Demand for goods within Britain complemented the demand from the colonies
      4. England had other assets that gave rise to industrial leadership
        1. England had an effective central band and well-developed credit markets
        2. The monarchy and the aristocratic oligarchy, which had jointly ruled since 1688, provided stable government and let the domestic economy operate with few controls, encouraging personal initiative, technical change, and a free market
        3. English had a large class of hired agricultural laborers, rural proletarians whose numbers increased during the enclosure movement and these rural wage earners were relatively mobile and along with cottage workers formed a potential industrial labor force for capitalist entrepreneurs
      5. All the factors combined to initiate the Industrial Revolution, coined by people in the 1830s to describe the burst of major inventions and technical change; technical revolution together with an impressive quickening annual rate of industrial growth
        1. Industry had grown at only 0.7 percent between 1700 and 1760, while industry grew at the rate of 3 percent between 1801 and 1831 (industrial transformation)
        2. The decisive quickening of growth probably came in the 1780s, after the American war for independence (longer process than the political revolutions)
      6. The Industrial Revolution was not complete in England until 1850 but had no real impact on the continental countries until after 1815
    2. The First Factories
      1. The first decisive breakthrough of the I.R. was the creation of the world’s first large factories in the English cotton textile industry and technological innovations in the manufacture of cotton cloth led to a system of production and social relationships
      2. The putting-out system of merchant capitalism was expanding across Europe in the eighteenth century (most developed in England) but under the pressure of growing demand, the system’s limitations first began to outweigh its advantages (after 1760)
      3. Constant shortage of thread in the textile industry focused attention of improving spinning, as wool and flax was hard to spin with the improved machines
        1. Cotton was different and cotton textiles had first been imported into England from India and by 1760, there was a tiny domestic industry in northern England
        2. After many experiments, James Hargreaves invented his cotton-spinning jenny in about 1765 and barber-turned-manufacturer named Richard Arkwright invented (or possibly pirate) another kind of spinning machine, the water frame
        3. Hargreaves’s jenny was simply, inexpensive, and hand operate; up to 24 spindles were mounted on a sliding carriage and each spindle spun a fine thread when the woman moved the carriage back and forth and turned a wheel to supply power
        4. Arkwright’s water frame acquired a capacity of several hundred spindles and demanded water power; water frame required specialized mills, but could only spin coarse, strong thread, which was put out for respinning on cottage jennies
        5. Samuel Crompton invented another technique around 1790 that required more power than the human arm and cotton spinning was concentrated in factories
      4. Cotton goods became much cheaper and were bought by all classes and families in cottage industry could now obtain thread spun on the jenny or obtain it from a factory
      5. Wages of weavers, how hard pressed to keep up with the spinners, rose markedly until about 1792 and were among the best-paid workers in England
      6. One result of the prosperity was a large numbers of agricultural laborers became handloom weavers and was an example of how further mechanization threatened certain groups of handicraft workers, for mechanics and capitalists soon sought to invent a power loom to save on labor costs; Edmund Cartwright invented the power loom in 1785 and handloom weavers received good wages until at least 1800
      7. Working conditions in the early factories were worse than those of cottage workers
        1. Until the late 1780s, most English factories were in rural areas, where they had access to waterpower and employed small percentage of all cotton textile workers
        2. People were reluctant to work in them because they had low pay and factory owners turned to young children as a source of labor (abandoned by parents)
        3. Under care of local parishes, parish officers often “apprenticed” orphans to factory owners where the parish saved money and factory had workers
      8. Apprenticed as young as five, children were forced by law to labor for their “master” for as many as fourteen years and were housed, fed, and locked up nightly in houses
        1. The young workers received little or no pay and hours were commonly fourteen hours a day, six days a week; harsh physical punishment maintained discipline
        2. Wholesale coercion of orphans as factory apprentices constituted exploitation and attracted the conscience of reformers and reinforced humanitarian attitudes towards children and their labor in the early nineteenth century
      9. The creation of the world’s first modern factories in the English cotton textile in the 1770s and 1780s industry was a major historical development and by 1831, the cotton textile industry accounted for 22 percent of the country’s entire industrial production
    3. The Problem of Energy
      1. The growth of the cotton textile industry might have been cut short if the water from rivers and streams had remained the primary source of power for the new factories, but a solution was found to the problem of energy and power
      2. Adult humans need 2,000 to 4,000 calories daily to simply fuel their bodies, work, and survive and have constructed machines to convert on form on energy into another
        1. More efficient use of water and wind in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries enabled human to accomplish more and society in the eighteenth century continued to rely on plants, and humans and animals performed most work
        2. The land was the principal source of raw materials needed for industrial production, which was difficult to expand (needed to produce more)
      3. The shortage of energy had become sever in England by the eighteenth century
        1. Most of the forests of medieval England had been replaced by fields of grain and hay and wood was in ever-shorter supply yet still remained important
        2. Wood was the primary source of heat for all homes and industries and the key to transportation since ships and wagons were made of wood
        3. Wood and iron ore were basic raw materials of the iron industry as processed wood (charcoal) was mixed with iron ore in the blast furnace to produce pig iron
        4. The iron industry’s appetite for wood was enormous and lay bare the forests of England as well as parts of continental Europe; by 1740 the English iron industry was declining but vast forests enabled Russia to become the world’s leading producer of iron and after a few decades Russia reached the barrier of inadequate energy
    4. The Steam Engine Breakthrough
      1. England looked toward its reserves of coal as an alternative to wood
        1. First used in England in the late Middle Ages as a source of heat; by 1640 most homes in London were heated with coal and was used to make various products
        2. Coal was not used to produce mechanical energy or to power machinery
      2. One pound of good bituminous coal contains about 3,500 calories of heat energy and a hard-working miner could dig out 500 pounds of coal a day using hand tools
        1. An inefficient converter, which transforms only 1 percent of heat energy in coal into mechanical energy, produced 27 horsepower-hours of work from the 500 pounds of coal while the minder only produced about 1 horsepower-hour
        2. Early steam engines were such inefficient converters and as more coal was produced, mines were dug deeper and were constantly filling with water
        3. Mechanical pumps, powered by animals walking in circles, had to be installed
      3. Thomas Savery (1698) & Thomas Newcomen (1705) invented the first steam engines
        1. Both engines were extremely inefficient and burned coal to produce steam, which was then injected into a cylinder or reservoir; in Newcomen’s engine, the steam in the cylinder was cooled, creating a partial vacuum, which allowed the pressure of the earth’s atmosphere to push the piston in the cylinder and operate a pump
        2. In the early 1760s, a gifted young Scot named James Watt was drawn to a study of the steam engine (University of Glasgow) and saw why the Newcomen engine was so inefficient—cylinder was being heated and cooled every piston stroke
        3. Watt added a separate condenser where the steam could be condensed without cooling the cylinder and greatly increased the efficiency of the steam engine
        4. Watt partnered with a wealthy, progressive toymaker that provided a risk capital and a manufacturing plant and from manufacturers such as cannonmaker John Wilkinson (bore cylinders), Watt was able to purchase precision parts; these parts allowed Watt to create an effective vacuum and regulate a complex engine
      4. The steam engine of Watt was the Industrial Revolution’s most fundamental advance in technology and people had unlimited power at their disposal; the steam engine provide even more coal and began to replace waterpower during the 1780s
      5. The English iron industry was transformed and the use of steam-driven bellows in blast furnaces helped ironmakers switch over from limited charcoal to unlimited coke in the smelting of pig iron; Henry Cort developed the puddling furnace which allowed pig iron to be refined in turn with coke and developed steam-powered rolling mills
      6. The economic consequence of the innovations was a great boom in the English iron industry (17,000 tons in 1740, 68,000 tons in 1788, and 3,000,000 tons in 1844)
      7. Iron became the cheap, basic, indispensable building block of the economy
    5. The Coming of the Railroads
      1. The second half of the eighteenth century saw extensive construction of roads but passenger traffic benefited most and overland shipment of freight, relying on horsepower, was limited and expensive (inventors tried to use steam power solution)
      2. As early as 1800, an American ran a “steamer on wheels” and English engineers created steam cars but horses continued to reign highways and streets for the century
      3. The coal industry had been using plank roads and rails to move coal wagons in mines and the surface because rails reduced friction and allowed carry of heavier loads
      4. In 1816 a stronger rail was developed, George Stephenson built an effective loco-motive in 1825 and in 1830, his Rocket sped down the track of the Liverpool and Manchester Railway at 16 miles per hour (world’s first important railroad)
      5. The line from Liverpool to Manchester was a financial and technical success and many private companies were quickly organized to build more rail lines
        1. Companies had to get permission from Parliament and pay for the rights of way and within twenty years, they had completed the main trunk lines of Great Britain
        2. The railroad dramatically reduced the cost and uncertainty of shipping freight overland and this advance had many economic consequences
        3. Markets had tended to be small and local but as the barrier of high transportation cost were lowered, they became larger and even nationwide
        4. Larger markets encouraged larger factories in the growing number of industries and such factories could make goods cheaply and provided severe competition
      6. The construction of railroads contributed to the growth of a class of urban workers and although rural workers did not leave their jobs to go work in factories, the building of railroads created a strong demand for labor, especially unskilled labor
        1. Many farm laborers and peasants, accustomed to temporary employment, went to build railroads, life back home in the village seemed dull and many men drifted to towns in search of work—with the companies, in construction, and in factories
        2. By the time they had sent for their family, they had become urban workers
      7. The railroad changed the outlook and values of the entire society and as the last and culminating invention of the Industrial Revolution, the railroad increased the speed of the new age (by 1850, trains were traveling down the tracks at 50 miles per hour)
      8. Joseph M.W. Turner and Claude Monet succeeded in expression and leading railway engineers Isambard Kingdom Brunel and Thomas Brassey became idols of their day
    6. Industry and Population
      1. In 1851, the Great Exposition, a famous industrial fair, was held in London in the new Crystal Palace, an architectural masterpiece made of glass and iron (now abundant)
      2. Britain produced two-thirds of the world’s coal and about one-half iron and cotton cloth and in 1860, Britain produced 20% of the world’s output of industrial goods
      3. Britain became the first industrial nation and as the economy increased the produc-tion, the gross national product (GNP) rose fourfold between 1780 and 1851 and the population increased from nine million to almost twenty-one million during that time
      4. Historians believe that more people meant a more mobile labor force where there were many young workers but contemporaries were less optimistic about the growth
        1. Thomas Malthus (Essay on the Principle of Population) argued that population would tend to grow faster than the food supply and young people had to limit the growth of population by the old tried-and-true means of marrying late in life
        2. English leading economist David Ricardo argued that the pressure of population growth would cause wages to sink to subsistence level (“the dismal science”)
        3. Economist Keynes said of the Great Depression, “we are all dead in the long run.”
      5. Until the 1820s, or even the 1840s, contemporary observers concluded that the economy and total population were racing neck and neck, with the outcome unknown
      6. Another problem was that perhaps workers, farmers, and ordinary people did not get their rightful share of the new wealth while the rich got richer and poor got poorer
  2. Industrialization in Continental Europe
    1. National Variations
      1. A per capita companion of levels of industrialization is a comparison of how much average industrial product was available to each person in a country in a given year
      2. In 1750, all countries were fairly close together and that Britain was only slightly ahead of France and that Britain had opened up a noticeable lead over all continental countries by 1800; gap widened as the British Industrial Revolution accelerated
      3. Third, variations in the timing and in the extent of industrialization in the continental powers and the United States are also apparent; Belgium rich in iron and coal, led in adopting Britain’s new technology, and France consistently developed gradually
      4. By 1913, Germany was rapidly closing in while the United States had already passed
      5. Finally, All the European states (As well as the United States, Canada, and Japan) managed to raise per capita industrial levels in the nineteenth century but stood in contrasted to most non-Western countries, most notably in China and India
      6. Rates of wealth and power creating industrial development, which heightened inequality in Europe, also magnified inequities between Europe and rest of the world
    2. The Challenge of Industrialization
      1. Throughout Europe the eighteenth century was an era of agricultural improvement, population increase, expanding foreign trade, and growing cottage industry
      2. When the pace of English industry began to accelerate in the 1780s, continental businesses began to adopt new methods and at first the Continent was close behind
        1. While English industry maintained the momentum of the 1780s, on the Continent, the political and economic upheavals that bean with the French Revolution disrupted trade, created runaway inflation, and foster social anxiety
        2. War severed normal communications between England and the Continent handicapping continental efforts to use the new British machinery and technology
        3. The widening gap mad it more difficult, if not impossible, for other countries to follow the British pattern in energy and industry after peace was restored in 1815
        4. British technology had become so advanced that few engineers outside England understood it and the technology of steampower had grown much more expensive which involved investments in iron and coal (required existence of railroads)
        5. Landowners and government officials were often suspicious of the new form of industry and changes; disadvantages slowed the spread of modern industry
      3. After 1815, continental countries that faced the British challenge had few advantages
        1. Continental countries had a rich tradition of putting-out enterprise, merchant capitalists and skilled urban artisans (ability to adapt and survive in new market)
        2. Continental capitalists did not need to develop their own advanced technology and rather could borrow the new methods developed in Great Britain
        3. European countries such as France and Russia had strong independent govern-ments, which did not fall under foreign political control and could fashion economic polices to serve their own interests
    3. Agents of Industrialization
      1. The British tried to keep their secrets to themselves and until 1825, it was illegal for artisans and skilled mechanics to leave Britain and until 1843, the export of textile machinery and other equipment was forbidden; many ambitious workers left illegally
      2. William Cockerill, a Lancaster carpenter, began building cotton-spinning equipment in Belgium (1799) and in 1817 son John Cockerill, converted the palace Liege into an industrial enterprise, which produced machinery, steam engines, and locomotives
        1. Cockerill’s plants became an industrial nerve center and skilled British workers came illegally to work for Cockerill, and some went on to found their companies
        2. Newcomers brought the latest plans and secrets to Cockerill; British technicians and skilled workers were a powerful force in the spread of early industrialization
      3. A second agent were talented entrepreneurs such as Fritz Harkort (business pioneer)
        1. Serving in England as a Prussian army officer, Harkort was impressed with what he saw and set up shop in a castle in Ruhr Valley, Germany (“Watt of Germany”)
        2. Harkort looked to England for mechanics and he imported thick iron boilers that he needed from England at great (had to be dismantled and shipped separately)
        3. Despite all the problems, Harkort built and sold engines, winning fame and praise but efforts over sixteen years resulted in large financial losses and in 1832, he was forced out of his company by his financial backers, who wanted to reduce losses
        4. Continental industrialization usually brought substantial but uneven expansion of handicraft industry; rising income of middle class created foreign demand
      4. A third force was government (often helped business people in continental countries)
        1. After 1815, France was suddenly flooded with cheaper, better English goods and the government laid high tariffs on English imports to protect the French economy and the continental governments bore the cost of building roads and canals
        2. In an effort to tie the independent nation together, the Belgian government decided to construct a state-owned railroad system (stimulated heavy industry)
        3. The Prussian government guaranteed that the state treasury would pay the interest and principal on railroad bonds if the private companies where unable to do and railroad investors in Prussia ran little risk and capital was quickly raised
        4. Government helped pay for railroads, the leading sector in continental industrial-ization; Friedrich List reflected government’s role in industrialization and con-sidered the growth of modern industry of utmost importance because manufac-turing was a primary means of increasing people’s well-being (defend the nation)
        5. List (National System of Political Economy) focused on the practical policies of railroad building and the tariff; he supported the formation of a customs union (Zollverein) among the separate German states—tariff union came around in 1834 and also he supported a high protective tariff allowing infant industries to develop
      5. Banks played a larger and more creative role on the Continent than in England
        1. Previously, almost all banks in Europe had been private, organized as secretive partnerships, and all active partners were liable for all the debts of the firm and partners of private banks tended to be quite conservative and avoided risks
        2. In the 1830s two important Belgian banks received permission from the government to establish themselves as corporations enjoying limited liability; a stockholder could lose only his original investment in the bank’s common stock
        3. Publicizing the risk-reducing advantage of limited liability, Belgian banks were able to attract shareholders and became industrial banks (promoted industry)
        4. Similar corporate banks became important in France and Germany in the 1850s and 1860s and they established and developed many railroads and many companies working in heavy industry and the most famous bank was Credit Mobilier of Paris founded by Isaac and Emile Pereire, journalists from Bordeaux
      6. The combined efforts of skilled workers, entrepreneurs, governments, and industrial banks meshed successfully between 1850 and the financial crash of 1873
      7. In Belgium, Germany, and France, key indicators of industrial development—such as railway mileage, iron and coal production, and steam engine capacity—increased at average annual rates of 5 to 10 compounded
  3. Capital and Labor
    1. The New Class of Factory Owners
      1. Industrial development brought new social relations and intensified long-standing problems between capital and labor in both urban workshops and cottage industry
      2. New thinking about social relations led to the development of a new overarching interpretation—a new paradigm—regarding social relationships (class consciousness)
      3. Manufacturers waged a constant battle to cut their production costs and stay afloat as much of the profit had to go back into the business for new and better machinery
      4. Artisans and skilled workers of exceptional ability had unparalleled opportunities and the ethnic and religious groups that had been discriminated against in the traditional occupations controlled by the landed aristocracy jumped at new changes; Quakers and Scots in England, Protestants and Jews dominated banking in Catholic France
      5. As factories grew larger, opportunities declined; formal education became more important for advancement and formal education at an advanced level was expensive
      6. In England, France, and Germany, leading industrialists were likely to have inherited their well-established enterprises and had a greater sense of class consciousness, fully aware that development had widened the gap between themselves and their workers
    2. The New Factory Workers
      1. The countries that followed England were able to benefit from English experience in social and technical matters (conditions of European workers improved after 1850)
      2. The Industrial Revolution in England had critics, among the first were romantic poets
        1. William Blake (1757-1827) called the early factories “satanic mills” and protested against the hard life of London poor
        2. William Wordsworth lamented the destruction of the rural way of life and the pollution of land and water; workers (Luddites) attacked whole factories in northern England in 1812 and smashed the new machines (taking their jobs)
        3. Malthus and Ricardo concluded that workers would earn only enough to stay alive
        4. Friedrich Engels, revolutionary and colleague of Karl Marx, published The Condition of the Working Class in England, a reflection on middle classes and wrote new poverty of the industrial workers was worse (culprit—capitalism)
      3. Other observers believed that conditions were improving for the working people
        1. Andrew Ure wrote in 1835 in his study of the cotton industry that conditions in most factories were not harsh and were even quite good
        2. Edwin Chadwick, a conscientious government official, concluded that the laboring community was able to buy more of the necessities and minor luxuries
      4. If working people suffered a great economic decline, as Engels and socialists assert-ed, then the purchasing power of the working person’s wages must have declined
        1. There was little or no increase in the purchasing power of the average British worker from about 1780 to 1820 (period from 1792 to 1815 -- war with France)
        2. Only after 1820, and especially after 1840, did wages rise substantially, so that the average worker earned and consumed 50 percent more in 1850 than in 1770
        3. The hours in the average workweek increased and workers earned more
        4. The war years colored early experience of modern industrial life in somber tones
      5. A way to consider the workers’ standard of living is to look at what they purchased
        1. Workers ate food of higher nutritional quality as the Industrial Revolution progressed and diets became varied—potatoes, dairy products, fruits, vegetables
        2. Clothing improve, but housing for working people probably deteriorated
      6. Per capita use of goods supports the position that the standard of living of the working classes rose, at least moderately, after the long wars with France
    3. Conditions of Work
      1. The first factories were cotton mills in the 1770s and cottage workers accustomed to the putting-out system, were reluctant to work in factories as the work was different
        1. In the factory, workers had to keep up with the machine and follow its tempo and had to show up every day and work long, monotonous hours (factory whistle)
        2. Cottage workers set their own pace and could interrupt their work when they wanted to as long as they met the deadlines for that week
        3. Early factories resembled English poorhouses increased cottage workers’ fear
      2. The cottage worker’s reluctance to work in the factories prompted early cotton mill owners to turn to abandoned and pauper children for their labor (contracted officials)
        1. Pauper children were badly treated and overworked in mills, and in the eighteenth century, semi-forced child labor seemed necessary and was socially accepted
        2. By 1790, the use of pauper apprentices was in decline was forbidden in 1802
        3. Many factories were being built in urban areas were they could use steampower other than waterpower and attract a workforce more easily then in the countryside
        4. People came from near and far to work in the cities, both as factory workers and as laborers, builders, and domestic servants (helped modify the system)
      3. People often came to the mills and the mines as family units and the mill or mine owner bargained with the head of the family; mothers and children supported father
      4. The preservation of the family as an economic unit in the factories mad the surroundings more tolerable during the early stages of industrialization
        1. The presence of the whole family meant the children and adults worked the same, dreadful long hours; twelve-hour shifts were normal in cotton mills in 1800
        2. Some very young children were employed solely to keep the family together
        3. Jedediah Strutt believed children should be at least ten years old to work in the mills; adult workers were not interested in limiting the minimum working age or hours of their children as long as family members worked side by side
      5. Enlightened employers and social reforms argued that humane standards were necessary, used widely circulated parliamentary reports to appeal to public opinion
        1. Robert Owen, a successful manufacturer in Scotland, testified in 1816 that employing children under ten years of age as factory workers was “injurious to the children, and not beneficial to the proprietors” (slow growth and learning)
        2. Owen had raised the age of employment (twelve) in his mills and was promoting education for young children and workers also provide testimony as such hearings
      6. The Factory Act of 1833 limited the factory workday for children between nine and thirteen to eight hours and that of adolescents (fourteen to eighteen) to twelve hours, although the act made no effort to regulated hours at home or in small businesses
        1. The law also prohibited the factory employment of children under nine years old, who were to be enrolled in the elementary schools that factory owners were required to establish and the employment of children declined rapidly
        2. The Factory Act broke the pattern of whole families working together in the factory because efficiency required standardized shifts for all workers
      7. Many manufacturer and builders hired workers through subcontractors who paid them on the basis of what the subcontractors and their crew produced and in turn, the subcontractors hired and fired their own workers, many who were friends and relation
      8. The relationship between subcontractor and work crew was close and personal
      9. Ties of kinship was important for newcomers, who often traveled great distances to find work and many urban workers in Great Britain were from Ireland, forced out by population growth and deteriorating economic conditions from 1817 on
      10. Even though Irish workers were not related directly by blood, they were held together by ethnic and religious ties and like other immigrant groups, they worked together
    4. The Sexual Division of Labor
      1. By tradition, certain jobs were defined by sex but tasks might go to either sex because particular circumstances dictated family’s response in its battle for economic survival
      2. Woman found lonely limited job opportunities and were generally denied good jobs at good wages outside the house after the first child arrived (housework, child care)
        1. Married women were much less likely to work full time for wages outside the house after the first child arrived but earn small amounts in the putting-out system
        2. Married women who did work for wages usually came from the poor, desperate families, where the husbands were poorly paid, sick, unemployed, or missing
        3. The poor married women were joined by groups of young unmarried women, who worked full time but only in certain jobs; confined to low-paying, dead-end jobs
      3. Scholars stress the role of male-dominated craft unions in denying women access to good jobs and in reducing them to unpaid maids dependent on their husbands
      4. Others believe that the gender roles were result of economic and biological factors to explain why women were unwilling to halt the emergence of a division of labor
        1. The new and unfamiliar discipline of the clock and the machine was especially hard on married women; factory discipline conflicted with child care
        2. Running a household in conditions of primitive urban poverty was an extremely demanding job in its own right; everything had to be done on foot such as the shopping and feeding the family and another brutal job didn’t appeal to women
        3. The desire of males to monopolize the best opportunities and hold women down
        4. The growth of factories and mines brought unheard-of opportunities for girls and boys to mix on the job, free of familial supervision and such intimacy also led to the illegitimacy explosion that began in the eighteenth century and the segregation of jobs by gender was to help control the sexuality of the working youth
      5. The middle-class men leading the inquiry about the British coal industry failed to appreciate the physical of the girls and women but were shocked to see them without shirts and assumed the prevalence of immoral sex with male miners
        1. The Mines Act of 1842 prohibited underground work for all women as well as for boys under ten and some women protested against being excluding from coal mining, which paid higher wages than most other jobs open to women
        2. But girls and the women who had worked underground who were part of families that could manage economically, were generally pleased with the law
    5. ​​The Early Labor Movement
      1. Many kinds of employment changed slowly; farm and domestic labor continued to be most common, and small-scale handicraft production remained unchanged in many trades which helped eased the transition to industrial civilization (small workshops)
      2. Working class solidarity and class consciousness developed, particularly in the north of England, and many employers adopted the feeling that unions were a form of restriction on industrial growth
        1. The liberal concept of economic freedom gathered strength in the late eighteenth century and the British government attacked monopolies, guilds, and combination
        2. The Combination Act of 1799 passed by Parliament outlawed unions and strikes
        3. In 1813 to 1814, Parliament repealed the old and disregarded the law of 1563 regulating the wags of artisans and the conditions of apprenticeship
      3. Workers who continued to organize and strike disregarded the Combination Acts and Parliament repealed the Combination Acts in 1824 and unions were tolerated
      4. Robert Owen pioneered in industrial relations by combining firm discipline with concern for the health, safety, and hours of his workers 
        1. Owen tried to create a national union of workers (the GNCTU), and then after 1851 the craft unions ("new model unions") won benefits for their members 
        2. The most famous of these unions was the Amalgamated Society of Engineers
      5. Chartism was a workers' political movement that sought universal male suffrage, shorter work hours, and cheap bead; workers developed a sense of their own identity

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Aboukhadijeh, Feross. "Chapter 22: The Revolution in Energy and Industry" StudyNotes.org. Study Notes, LLC., 29 Dec. 2013. Web. 02 Mar. 2024. <https://www.apstudynotes.org/european-history/outlines/chapter-22-the-revolution-in-energy-and/>.