AP U.S. Government Notes

Chapter 5: The American Political Landscape

Ethnocentrism – Belief in the superiority of one’s nation or ethnic group.

Political socialization – The process by which we develop our political attitudes, values, and beliefs.

Demographics – The study of the characteristics of populations.

Political predisposition – A characteristic of individuals that is predictive of political behavior.

Reinforcing cleavages – Divisions within society that reinforce one another, making groups more homogenous or similar.

Cross-cutting cleavages – Divisions within society that cut across demographic categories to produce groups that are more heterogeneous or different.

Manifest destiny – A notion held by a nineteenth-century Americans that the United States was destined to rule the continent, from the Atlantic the Pacific.

Race - A grouping of human beings with distinctive characteristics determined by genetic inheritance.

Ethnicity – A social division based on national origin, religion, language, and often race.

Gender gap – The difference between the political opinions or political behavior of men and of women.

Fundamentalists – Conservative Christians who (as a group) have become more active in politics in the last two decades and were especially influential in the 2000 presidential election.

Gross domestic product (GDP) – The total output of all economic activity in the nation, including goods and services.

Socioeconomic status (SES) – A division of population based on occupation, income, and education.

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Aboukhadijeh, Feross. "Chapter 5: The American Political Landscape" StudyNotes.org. Study Notes, LLC., 17 Nov. 2012. Web. 23 Jun. 2024. <https://www.apstudynotes.org/us-government/vocabulary/chapter-5-the-american-political-landscape/>.