AP U.S. History Notes

Chapter 20: Girding for War - The North and the South, 1861-1865

  1. The Menace of Secession
    1. Lincoln’s inaugural address was firm yet conciliatory; there would be no conflict unless South provoked it; secession was wholly impractical because couldn’t physically separate
      1. The North and South were bound inseparably together (no sectional divorce)
      2. Uncontested secession would create new controversies; what share of the national debt should the South be forced to take with it? What portion of the jointly held federal territories, if any, should the Confederate states be allotted?
      3. How would the fugitive-slave issue be resolved—the Underground Railroad would certainly redouble its activity and it would have to transport its passengers only across the Ohio River, not all the way to Canada (conceivable to solve all such problems?)
    2. A united US had been paramount republic in the Western Hemisphere; if this powerful democracy should break into two hostile parts, the European nations would be delighted; they could gleefully transplant to America their ancient concept of the balance of power
    3. The colonies of the European powers in the New World, notably those of Britain would thus be made safer against the rapacious Yankees (defy Monroe Doctrine; seize territory)
  2. South Carolina Assails Fort Sumter
    1. The issue of the divided Union came to a head over the matter of federal forts in the South; as the seceding states left, they had seized the United States’ arsenals, mints, and other public property within their borders (Fort Sumter in Charleston harbor)
    2. Ominously the choices presented to Lincoln by Fort Sumter were all bad
      1. This stronghold had provisions that would last only few weeks—until middle of April 1861 and if no supplies were forthcoming, its commander would have to surrender
      2. Lincoln did not feel that Fort Sumter was strong enough to take as his obligation to protect federal property—but if he sent reinforcements, the South Carolinians would undoubtedly fight back—could not tolerate federal fort blocking important sea port
    3. After agonizing indecision, Lincoln adopted a middle-of-the-road solution
      1. He notified the South Carolinians that an expedition would be sent to provision the garrison, though not to reinforce it but Southern eyes saw otherwise
      2. A Union naval force was next started on its way to Fort Sumter—a move that the South regarded as an act of aggression and on April 12, 1861, the cannon of the Carolinians opened fire on the fort, while the crowds in Charleston applauded
      3. After a thirty-four-hour bombardment, the dazed garrison surrendered (no lives lost)
    4. The shelling of the fort electrified the North, which at once responded the cries of “Remember Fort Sumter” and “Save the Union” (fort was lost, but the Union was saved)
    5. Lincoln had turned a tactical defeat into a calculated victory; Southerners had fired upon the glorious Stars and Stripes and honor demanded an armed response
    6. Lincoln promptly issued a call to the states for seventy-five thousand militiamen and volunteers sprang to the colors in such enthusiastic numbers that many were turned away; on April 19 and 27, the president proclaimed a leaky blockade of Southern seaports
    7. The call for troops, in turn, aroused the South much as the attack on Fort Sumter had aroused the North; Lincoln was now waging war (an aggressive war from Southern view)
    8. Seven states became eleven as Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee, and North Carolina reluctantly joined the states; Richmond, Virginia, replaced Montgomery, Alabama, as the Confederate capital—too near Washington for strategic comfort on either side
  3. Brothers’ Blood and Border Blood
    1. The only slave states left were the crucial Border States; this group consisted of Missouri, Kentucky, Maryland, Delaware, and later West Virginia (“mountain white” area)
      1. If the North had fired the first shot, some or all of these doubtful states probably would have seceded, and the South might well have succeeded
      2. The border group actually contained a white population more than half that of the entire Confederacy; Maryland, Kentucky, and Missouri would almost double the manufacturing capacity of the South and increase its supply of horses and mules
      3. The strategic prize of the Ohio River flowed along the northern border of Kentucky and West Virginia; two of its navigable tributaries, penetrated deep into the heart of Dixie, much of the Confederacy’s grain, gunpowder, and iron was produced
    2. In dealing with the Border States, President Lincoln did not rely solely on morals but successfully used methods of dubious legality; in Maryland he declared martial law were needed and sent troops because MD threatened to cut off Washington from the North
    3. Lincoln also deployed Union soldiers in western Virginia and notably in Missouri where they fought beside Unionists in a local civil war within the larger Civil War
    4. Any official statement of the North’s war aims was profoundly influenced by the teetering Border States; at the very outset, Lincoln was obliged to declare publicly that he was not fighting to free the blacks (antislavery declaration not a good political move)
    5. An antislavery war was also extremely unpopular in the Butternut region of southern Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois (area had been settled largely by Southerners who had carried their racial prejudices with them when they crossed the Ohio River)
    6. Lincoln insisted repeatedly that his paramount purpose was to save the Union at all costs; thus the war began not as one between slave soil and free soil, but on for the Union
    7. Slavery also colored the character of the war in the West; in Indian Territory, most of the Five Civilized Tribes (Cherokees, Creeks, Choctaws, Chickasaws, and Seminoles) sided with the Confederacy—some owned slaves and felt a common cause with the South
    8. To secure their loyalty, the Confederate government agreed to take over federal payments to the tribes and invited Native Americans to send delegates to the Confederate congress; in return the tries supplied troops to the Confederate army to fight in the war
    9. Meanwhile, a rival faction of Cherokees and many Plains Indians sided with the Union
    10. There were many Northern volunteers from the Southern states and many Southern volunteers from the Northern states; the mountain whites of the South sent north some 50,000 men and the loyal slave states contributed some 300,000 soldiers to the Union
  4. The Balance of Forces
    1. When war broke out, the South seemed to have great advantages to the North
      1. The Confederacy could fight defensively behind interior lines; the North had to invade the vast territory of the Confederacy, conquer it, and drag it back to the Union
      2. The south did not have to win the war in order to win its independence; fighting on their won soil for self-determination and preservation of their way of life, Southerners at first enjoyed an advantage in morale as well over the North
    2. Militarily, the South from the opening volleys of the war had the most talented officers
      1. Most conspicuous among a dozen first-rate commanders was General Robert E. Lee, whose knightly bearing and chivalric sense of honor embodied the Southern ideal
      2. Lincoln had unofficially offered him command the Northern armies, but when Virginia seceded, Lee felt honor-bound to go with his native state
      3. Lee’s chief lieutenant for much of the war was Thomas J. (“Stonewall”) Jackson, a gifted tactical theorist and a master of speed and deception
    3. Besides leaders, ordinary Southerners were also bred to fight; accustomed to managing horses and bearing arms from boyhood, they made excellent cavalrymen and foot soldiers
    4. High-pitched “rebel yell” was designed to strike terror into the hearts of Yankee recruits
    5. As one immense farm, the south seemed to be handicapped by the scarcity of factories; yet by seizing federal weapons, running Union blockades, and developing their own ironworks, Southerners managed to obtain sufficient weaponry
    6. As war dragged on, grave shortages of shoes, uniforms, and blankets disabled the South
      1. Even with immense stores of food on Southern farms, civilians and soldiers often went hungry because of supply problems; much of the hunger was caused by a breakdown of the South’s rickety transportation system (railroad tracks cut)
      2. The economy was the greatest Southern weakness; it was the North’s strength
      3. The North was not only a huge farm but a sprawling factory as well; Yankees boasted about three-fourths of the nation’s wealth, including three-fours of the railroad miles
      4. The North controlled the sea with its vastly superior navy with which it established a blockade that although was a sieve at first, soon choked off Southern supplies and eventually shattered Southern morale; its sea power also enabled the north to exchange huge quantities of grain for munitions and supplies from Europe
    7. The Union enjoyed a much larger reserve of manpower; the loyal states had a population of some 22 million; the seceding states had 9 million people, including about 3.5 million slaves; adding to the North’s overwhelming supply of soldier were ever-more immigrants from Europe, who continued to pour into the North even during the war
    8. Over 800,000 newcomers arrived between 1861 and 1865, most of them British, Irish, and German; large numbers of them were induced to enlist in the Union army
    9. Whether immigrant or native, ordinary Northern boys were much less prepared than their Southern counterparts for military life (known for their discipline and determination)
    10. The North was much less fortunate in its higher commanders; Lincoln was forced to use a costly trial-and-error method to sort out effective leaders from many incompetent political officers, until he finally uncovered general Ulysses S. Grant (way to victory)
    11. In the long run, as the Northern strengths were brought to bear, they outweighed those of the south but when the war began, the chances for Southern independence were unusually favorable—a turn of a few events could easily have produced a different outcome
    12. If the Border States had seceded, if uncertain states of the upper Mississippi Valley had turned against the Union, if a wave of Northern defeatism had demanded an armistice, and if Britain and/or France had broken the blockade, the south might well have won
  5. Dethroning King Cotton
    1. Successful revolutions have generally succeeded because of foreign intervention; the South had counted on it, did not get the help from foreigners, and had lost
      1. Of all the Confederacy’s potential assets, none counted more weightily than the prospect of foreign intervention; Europe’s ruling classes were openly sympathetic to the Confederate cause (abhorred the American democratic experiment and they cherished a fellow-feeling for the South’s semi-feudal, aristocratic social order)
      2. In contrast, the masses of working people in Britain, and to some extent in France, were pulling and praying for the North—many had read Uncle Tom’s Cabin and sensed that the war might extinguish slavery if the North emerged victorious
      3. Their certain hostility to any official intervention on behalf of the South evidently had a sobering effect on the British government (Uncle Tom helped Uncle Sam by restraining the British and French ironclads from piercing the Union blockade)
    2. Why did King Cotton fail when British textile mills depended on the American South for 75 percent of their cotton supplies? (Would silent loom force London to speak?)
      1. He failed in part because he had been so lavishly productive in the immediate prewar years of 1857-1860; enormous exports of cotton in those years had piled up surpluses in British warehouses and British manufacturers had a hefty oversupply of fiber
      2. The real pinch did not come until about a year and a half later, when work was lost
      3. By that time, Lincoln had announced his slave-emancipation policy, and the “wage slaves” of Britain were not going to demand a war to defend the slaveowners
    3. The direst effects of the “cotton famine” in Britain were relieved in several ways; hunger among unemployed workers was partially eased when certain kindhearted Americans sent over several cargoes of foodstuffs (Union armies captured or bought considerably supplies of cotton and shipped them to Britain and Confederates ran a bit by blockade)
    4. In addition, the cotton growers of Egypt and Indian, responding to high prices, increased their output; finally booming war industries in England, which supplied both the North and the South, relived unemployment that was throughout Britain
    5. King Wheat and King Corn—monarchs of Northern agriculture—proved to be more potent potentates than King Cotton; during these war years, the North blessed with ideal weather produced bountiful crops of grain and harvested them with the mechanical reaper
    6. At the same period, the British suffered a series of bad harvests and were forced to import huge quantities of grain from America, which happened to have the cheapest and most abundant supply; if Britain had broken the blockade to gain cotton, they would have provoked the North to war and would have lost this precious granary
  6. The Decisiveness of Diplomacy
    1. America’s diplomatic front has seldom been so critical as during the Civil War; the South never wholly abandoned its dream of foreign intervention (European rules schemed)
    2. The first major crisis with Britain came over the Trent affair, late in 1861
      1. A Union warship cruising on high seas north of Cuba stopped a British mail steamer, the Trent, and forcibly removed two Confederate diplomats bound for Europe
      2. Britons were outraged: upstart Yankees could not so boldly offend the Mistress of the Seas; war preparations buzzed and red-coated troops embarked for Canada
      3. The London Foreign Office prepared an ultimatum demanding surrender of the prisoners and an apology; but luckily slow communications gave passions on both sides a chance to cool; Lincoln came to see the Trent prisoners as “white elephants,” and reluctantly released them—“One war at a time,” he reportedly said
    3. Another major crisis in Anglo-American relations arose over the un-neutral building in Britain of Confederate commerce-raiders, notably the Alabama; they were not warships in British law because they left their shipyards unarmed and picked up arms elsewhere
      1. The Alabama escaped in 1862 to the Portuguese Azores and took weapons and crew from two British ships that followed; although flying confederate flag and officered by Confederates, it was manned by Britons and never entered Confederate port
      2. Britain was thus the chief naval base of the Confederacy
      3. The Alabama lighted the skies form Europe to the Far East with the burning hulks of Yankee merchantmen; all told, this “British pirate” captured over sixty vessels
      4. Competing British shippers were delighted and an angered North had to divert naval strength from its blockade for wild-goose chases (defeated off coast of France, 1864)
    4. The Alabama was beneath the waves, but issue of British-built Confederate raiders stayed afloat; American minister Charles Francis Adams persuaded the British that allowing such ships to be built was a dangerous precedent that might be used against them
    5. In 1863 London openly violated its own leaky laws and seized another raider being built for the South; though efforts were made to stay neutral, the destroyers captured more than 250 Yankee ships, severely crippling the American merchant marine (never recovered)
  7. Foreign Flare-ups
    1. A final Anglo-American crisis was touched off in 1863 by the Laird rams—two Confederate warships being constructed in the shipyard of John Laird and Sons in GB
      1. Designed to destroy the wooden ships of the Union navy with their iron rams and large-caliber guns, they were far more dangerous than the swift but lightly armed Alabama; if delivered to the south they were probably have sunk blockading ships
      2. In retaliation the North doubtless would have invaded Canada, and a full-dress war with Britain would have erupted; but American Minister Adams took the hard line, warning that “this is war” if the rams were released from Great Britain
      3. At the last minute the London government relented and bought the two ships for the Royal Navy; everyone seemed satisfied except the disappointed Confederates
      4. Britain also repented its sorry role in the Alabama business; it agreed in 1871 to submit the Alabama dispute to arbitration and in 1872 paid $15.5 million
    2. American resentment was also directed at Canada, where despite the vigilance of British authorities, Southern agents plotted to burn Northern cities (Confederate raids)
      1. Hatred of England burned especially fiercely among Irish-Americans and they unleashed their fury on Canada; they raised several tiny “armies” of a few hundred and launched invasions of Canada, notably in 1866 and 1870
      2. The Canadians condemned the Washington government for permitting violations of neutrality, but administration was hampered by the presence of Irish-American voters
    3. Two great nations emerged from the fiery furnace of the American Civil War; one was a reunited United States, and the other was a united Canada; the British Parliament established the Dominion of Canada in 1867; it was partly designed to bolster the Canadians, both politically and spiritually, against the possible vengeance of the US
    4. Emperor Napoleon III of France, taking advantage of America’s preoccupation with its own internal problems, dispatched a French army to occupy Mexico City in 1863
      1. In 1864, he installed on the ruins of the crushed republic his puppet, Austrian archduke Maximilian, as emperor of Mexico (violation of Monroe Doctrine)
      2. Napoleon III had sent an army and enthroned Maximilian; he was gambling that the Union would collapse and thus American would be too weak to enforce its “hands-off” policy in the Western Hemisphere (North was cautious toward France)
    5. When the shooting stopped in 1865, Secretary of State Seward prepared to march south and Napoleon realized that his costly gamble was doomed (Napoleon took “French leave” in 1867 and Maximilian soon crumpled before a Mexican firing squad)
  8. President Davis Versus President Lincoln
    1. The Confederate government, like King Cotton, harbored fatal weaknesses
      1. Its constitution, borrowing liberally from that of the Union, contained one deadly defect; created by secession, it could not logically deny future secession to its constituent states—Jefferson Davis had in view a well-knit central government
      2. Determined states’ rights supporters fought him bitterly to the end; the Richmond regime encountered difficulty persuading certain state troops to serve outside borders
      3. States’ rights were no less damaging to the Confederacy than Yankee sabers
    2. President Davis was repeatedly in hot water; he at on time enjoyed real personal popularity—at times there was serious talk of impeachment (unlike Lincoln)
      1. Davis was somewhat imperious and inclined to defy rather than lead public opinion and suffering acutely from nervous disorders, he overworked himself with the details of both civil government and military operations (task beyond his powers)
      2. Lincoln also had his troubles but the North enjoyed the prestige of a long-established government, financially stable and fully recognized both at home and abroad
      3. Lincoln proved superior to the more experienced by less flexible Davis; he developed a genius for interpreting and leading a fickly public opinion but still demonstrated charitableness toward the South and tolerance toward infighting colleagues
  9. Limitations on Wartime Liberties
    1. Congress, in crisis, generally accepted or confirmed the president’s questionable acts (Lincoln did not believe that his ironhanded authority would continue after war)
    2. Congress was not in session when war erupted, so Lincoln gathered the reins; brushing aside legal objections, he proclaimed a blockade (actions later upheld by Supreme Court)
      1. He arbitrarily increased the size of the Federal army—something that only Congress can do under the Constitution (Congress would later approve)
      2. He directed the secretary of the Treasury to advance $2 million without appropriation or security to three private citizens for military purposes—a grave irregularity contrary to the Constitution; he suspended the precious privilege of the writ of habeas corpus, so that anti-Unionists might be summarily arrested
      3. He defied a dubious ruling by the chief justice that the safeguards of habeas corpus could be set aside only by authorization of Congress
    3. Lincoln’s regime was guilt of many other high-handed acts; there was “supervised” voting in the Border States, federal officials also ordered the suspension of certain newspapers and the arrest of their editors on grounds of obstructing the war
    4. Jefferson Davis was less able than Lincoln to exercise arbitrary power, mainly because of confirmed states’ righters who fanned an intense spirit of localism
    5. To the very end, owners of horse-drawn vans in Petersburg, Virginia prevented the sensible joining of the incoming and outgoing tracks of a militarily vital railroad
  10. Volunteers and Draftees: North and South
    1. Northern armies were at first manned solely by volunteers, with each state assigned a quota based on population; but in 1863, after volunteering had slackened off, Congress passed a federal conscription law for the first time on a nationwide scale in the US
      1. The provisions were grossly unfair to the poor; rich boys could hire substitutes to go in their places or purchase exemption outright by paying $300; “three-hundred-dollar men” was the scornful epithet applied to these slackers and draftees complained (life)
      2. The draft was especially damned in the Democratic strong holds of the North, notably in New York City; a frightful riot broke out in 1863, touched off largely by underprivileged and anti-black Irish-Americans, who shouted, “Down with Lincoln”
      3. For several days the city was at the mercy of the pillaging mob; scores of lives were lost, and the victims included many lynched blacks (elsewhere in the North, conscription met with resentment and an occasional minor riot)
    2. More than 90 percent of the Union troops were volunteers, since social and patriotic pressures to enlist were strong; as able-bodied men became scarcer, generous bounties for enlistment were offered by federal, state, and local authorities (as much as $1,000)
    3. With money flowing freely, a crew of “bounty brokers” and “substitute brokers” sprang up, at home and abroad—combed poor houses of the British Isles and western Europe
    4. Sometimes the “bounty boys” deserted, volunteered elsewhere and netted another haul and these “bounty jumpers” sometimes repeated this profitable operation
    5. The rolls of the Union army recorded about 200,000 deserters of all classes, and the Confederate authorities were plagued with a runaway problem of similar dimensions
    6. Like the North, the South at first relied mainly on volunteers but since the Confederacy was much less populous, it scraped the bottom of its manpower barrel much more quickly
      1. The Richmond regime was forced to resort to conscription as early as April 1862, nearly a year earlier than the Union (“cradle and grave”—ages 17 to 50)
      2. Confederation draft regulations also worked serious injustices; as in the North, a rich man could hire a substitute or purchase exemption (slaveowners as well too)
      3. These special privileges made for bad feelings among the less prosperous, many of whom complained that this was “a rich man’s war but a poor man’s fight”
      4. No large-scale draft riots broke out in the South but Confederate conscription agents avoided those areas inhabited by sharpshooting mountain whites (“Yankee-lovers”)
  11. The Economic Stresses of War
    1. Blessed with a large share of the wealth, the North rode through the financial breakers much more smoothly than the South; excise taxes on tobacco and alcohol were substantially increased by Congress (an income tax was levied for the first time—low)
    2. Customs receipts likewise proved to be important revenue-raisers; early in 1861, after enough anti-protection Southern members had seceded, Congress passed the Morrill Tariff Act, superseding the low Tariff of 1857 (increased existing duties 5 to 10 percent)
    3. These modest rates were soon pushed sharply upward by the necessities of war; the increases were designed partly to raise additional revenue and partly to provide more protection fro the prosperous manufacturers (protective tariff became identified with the Republican party, as American industrialists mostly Republicans had welcoming benefits
    4. The Washington Treasury also issued green-backed paper money, totaling nearly $450 million, at face value; the printing-press currency was inadequately supported by gold and hence its value was determined by the nation’s credit (fluctuated with war)
    5. The holders of notes, victims of creeping inflation, were indirectly taxed as the value of the currency slowly withered in their hands yet borrowing far outstripped paper and taxes
    6. The federal Treasury netted 2.6 billion through the sale of bonds, which bored interest and which were payable at a later date; the modern technique of selling these issues to the people directly through “drives” and payroll deductions had not yet been devised
      1. Accordingly the Treasury was forced to market its bonds through the private banking house of Jay Cooke and Company, which received a commission of three-eighths of 1 percent on all sales (bankers succeeded in making effective appeals to citizens)
      2. A financial landmark of the war was the National Banking System, authorized by Congress in 1863—launched partly as a stimulant to the sale of government bonds, it was also designed to establish a standard bank-note currency
      3. Banks that joined the National Banking System could buy government bonds and issue sound paper money backed by them; the war-born National Banking Act thus turned out to be the first significant step taken toward a united banking network
      4. The system continued to function until it was replaced by the Federal Reserve System
    7. An impoverished South was beset by different financial woes; customs duties were choked off as the coils of the Union blockade tightened (large issues of Confederate bonds were sold at home and abroad, amounting to nearly $400 million)
      1. The Richmond regime increased taxes sharply and imposed a 10 percent levy on farm produce but in general the states’ rights southerners were opposed to heavy direct taxation by the central authority (only 1 percent of total income produced this way)
      2. The Confederate government was forced to print blue-backed paper money with complete abandon; “runaway inflation” occurred as Southern presses continued to grind out the poorly backed treasury notes (overall the war inflicted a 9,000 percent inflation rate on the Confederacy, contrasted with 80 percent for the Union)
  12. The North’s Economic Boom
    1. Wartime prosperity in the North was miraculous; the marvel is that a divided nation could fight a costly conflict for four years and emerge seemingly more prosperous than ever
      1. New factories, sheltered by the new protective tariffs sprang forth
      2. Soaring prices, resulting from inflation, unfortunately pinched the day laborer and the white-collar worker to some extent but manufacturers and businesspeople gained
    2. The Civil War bred a millionaire class for the first time in American history
      1. Many of these newly rich were noisy, gaudy, brassy, and given to extravagant living; their emergence merely illustrates the truth that some gluttony and greed mar the devotion and self-sacrifice called forth by a war such as the Civil War
      2. Yankee “sharpness” appeared at its worst; dishonest agents, putting profits above patriotism palmed off aged and blind horses on government purchasers; unscrupulous Northern manufacturers supplied shoes with cardboard soles and fast-disintegrating uniforms of reprocessed or “shoddy” wool rather than virgin wool
    3. Newly invented laborsaving machinery enabled the North to expand economically and the sewing machine wrought wonders in fabricating uniforms and military footwear
    4. The marriage of military need and innovative machinery largely ended the production of custom-tailored clothing; graduated standard measurements were introduced (sizes)
    5. Clattering mechanical reapers proved hardly less potent than thundering guns; they not only released tens of thousand of farms boys fro the army but fed them their field rations
    6. Producing vast surpluses of grain that when sent aboard helped dethrone king Cotton, they provided profits with which the North was able to buy munitions and supplies from abroad—contributed to the feverish prosperity of the North and Union
    7. The discovery of petroleum gushers in 1859 had led to a rush of “Fifty-Niners” to PA
      1. The result was the birth of a new industry and pioneers continued to push westward during the war, altogether an estimated 300,000 people (major magnets were free gold nuggets and free land under the Homestead Act of 1862; strong propellants were the federal draft agents (ocean-carrying trade suffered a crippling setback)
      2. The Civil War was a women’s war, too; the protracted conflict opened new opportunities for women; when men departed, women often took jobs (in govt.)
      3. The booming military demand for shoes and clothing, combined with technological marvels like the sewing machine, like wise drew countless women into industrial employment (ratio rose from one in four to one in three industrial worker women)
    8. Other women stepped up to the fighting front or close behind it; some women accompanied their husbands, others took on dangerous spy missions; others nurses
    9. Dr. Elizabeth Blackwell, America’s first female physician, helped organize the U. S., Sanitary Commission to assist the Union armies in the field (trained nurses, collected medical supplies and equipped hospitals—women’s movement that followed)
    10. Clara Barton and Dorothea Dix, superintendent of nurses for the Union army helped transform nursing from a lowly service into a respected profession (Sally Tompkins)
  13. A Crushed Cotton Kingdom
    1. The South fought to the point of exhaustion; the suffocation caused by the blockade together with the destruction wrought by invaders, took a terrible toll
      1. The South claimed only 12 percent of the national wealth in 1870 (30% in 1860)
      2. The Civil War squeezed the average southern income to two-fifths of the North (2/3)
    2. Transportation collapsed; the South was driven to pulling up rails form the less-used lines to repair the main ones—to the brutal end the South mustered remarkable resourcefulness
      1. Women buoyed up their men folk; the self-sacrificing women took pride in denying themselves the silks and satins of their Northern sisters (“The Southern Girl”)
      2. At war’s end the Northern Captains of Industry had conquered the Southern Lords of the Manor; a crippled South left the capitalistic North free to work its own way, with high tariffs and other benefits (Northern manufacturers and Industrial Revolution)
    3. The south of 1865 was to be rich in little but amputees, war heroes, ruins, and memories

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Aboukhadijeh, Feross. "Chapter 20: Girding for War - The North and the South, 1861-1865" StudyNotes.org. Study Notes, LLC., 17 Nov. 2012. Web. 12 Dec. 2018. <https://www.apstudynotes.org/us-history/outlines/chapter-20-girding-for-war-the-north-and-the-south-1861-1865/>.
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