AP U.S. History Notes

Chapter 28: America on the World Stage, 1899-1909

“Little Brown Brothers” in the Philippines

  • The Senate refused to pass a resolution granting Filipino independence and bitterness toward American troops erupted into open insurrection in 1899 under Emilio Aguinaldo
  • As Filipino armies were defeated, they melted into the jungle to wage guerrilla warfare
  • Atrocity tales shocked and rocked the United States (reconcentration camps established)
  • The backbone of the Filipino insurrection was broken in 1901 with the capture of Aguinaldo
  • President McKinley appointed the Philippine Commission to act as a sort of government
  • At its head was William H. Taft who called the Filipinos his “little grown brothers”
  • Millions poured in to improve roads, sanitation, and public health (sugar trade)
  • The Filipinos hated compulsory Americanization and preferred liberty (July 1946)

Hinging the Open Door in China

  • Following China’s defeat by Japan in 1895, imperialistic European powers moved in
  • A growing group of Americans viewed the vivisection of China with alarm (Manchu dynasty)
  • Churches worried about missionaries, Chinese markets, American public nudged Washington
  • Secretary of State John Hay dispatched to all great powers the Open Door note (summer 1899)
  • He urged them to announce that in their spheres of influence they would respect certain Chinese rights and the ideal of fair competition (Open Door gained wide acceptance with public)
  • Italy alone accepted the Open Door unconditionally (only major power without land in China)
  • Britain, Germany, France, and Japan all accepted; Russia politely declined
  • In 1900 a super patriotic group known as the “Boxers” strove to drive out the “foreign devils”
  • A multinational rescue force arrived and quelled the rebellion—contrary to nation’s principles
  • The allied invaders had China pay an indemnity of $333 million—vastly excessive
  • Secretary Hay announced that the Open Door would embrace the territorial integrity of China

Imperialism or Bryanism in 1900?

  • President McKinley had won war, acquired rich estates, established the gold standard, prosperity
  • McKinley was renominated on a platform that endorsed prosperity, gold standard, and expansion
  • Teddy Roosevelt became a popular vice-presidential candidate (governor of New York)
  • William Jennings Bryan forced a silver plank down the throats of Democrats
  • Bryan assailed both imperialism and Republican-fostered trusts (Roosevelt toured the country)
  • Bryanites trumpeted their “paramount” issue of slavery while Republicans responded by charging that ”Bryanism,” not imperialism was paramount (no more prosperity with free-silver)
  • Victory for Republicans was not a mandate for or against imperialism (prosperity & protection)

TR: Brandisher of the Big Stick

  • William McKinley had served another six months when in September 1901, a deranged anarchist murdered him—Roosevelt became president at age forty-two, the youngest so far
  • Known for impulsiveness, he proclaimed that he would carry out the policies of his predecessor
  • The Rough Rider’s high-voltage energy was electrifying (“the tennis cabinet”)
  • Roosevelt never cased to preach the virile virtues and denounce civilized softness
  • “Speak softly and carry a big stick and you will go far”—if statesmen had big stick, they could work their will among foreign nations without shouting; shouting would do no good without it
  • His self-confidence merged with self-righteousness; he loved people and mingled with all ranks
  • A moralizer and reformer, Roosevelt preached virtue from the White House pulpit
  • TR had an enormous popular appeal because the common people saw the fiery champion in him
  • Roosevelt was a direct-actionists; he believed that president should lead and keep things moving

Colombia Blocks the Canal

  • Spanish-American War had emphasized need for a canal across the Central American isthmus
  • An isthmian canal would augment the strength of the navy by increasing its mobility
  • Waterway would make it easier to defense recent acquisitions (American merchant marine)
  • By Clayton-Bulwer Treaty, the US could not secure exclusive control over such a route (UK)
  • The British consented to the Hay-Pauncefote Treat in 1901 (US free hand to build canal)
  • French Canal Company was eager to salvage something from their failure at Panama
  • Bunau-Varilla offered holdings at $40 million (from $109) for New Panama Canal Company
  • Congress in June 1902 decided on the Panama route; Panama was unwilling part of Columbia
  • A treaty between the US and Colombian government granted the US a lease for a six-mile-wide zone in exchange for $10 million and an annual payment of $250,000 (Columbia rejected)
  • The “blackmailers of Bogota” were blocking the onward march of civilization

Uncle Sam Creates Puppet Panama

  • Bunau-Varilla was disturbed by prospect of losing money; Panamanians ripe for another revolt
  • He raised a tiny “patriot” army consisting of fire department and bought Colombian troops
  • The Panama revolution occurred on November 3, 1903 and Colombian troops were gathered to crush the uprising, but U.s. naval forces would not let them cross the isthmus
  • Roosevelt justified interference by interpretation of treaty of 1846 with Colombia
  • This pact obligated Washington to maintain “perfect neutrality” of the isthmus
  • Panama became outpost of US and Bunau-Varilla signed the Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty (same $)
  • Rough Rider became involved in the Panama affair and the European imperialists raised their eyebrows in scorn at America’s superior moral pretensions—Roosevelt’s “cowboy diplomacy”

Completing the Canal and Appeasing Colombia

  • The “rape” of Panama marked an ugly downward lurch in U.S. relations with Latin America
  • The era of the bullying “Big Brother” policy was brazenly launched
  • Roosevelt defended that he had received a “mandate from civilization” to start the canal
  • The Nicaragua route was about equally feasible but the presidential election of 1904 was coming
  • Active work was begun on “making the dirt fly” in 1904; organization was perfected under West Point engineer Colonel George Washington Goethals (who cared about sanitation)
  • In 1914 the colossal canal project was completed at an initial cost of about $400 million

TR’s Perversion of Monroe’s Doctrine

  • Nations such as Venezuela and the Dominican Republic owed to European creditors and seeking to force payment, German warships sank two Venezuelan boats in early 1903
  • Roosevelt feared that Germans or Britons might remain in Latin America (Monroe Doctrine)
  • Roosevelt devised the policy of “preventive intervention”—Roosevelt Corollary to M.D.
  • Brandishing of the big stick in the Caribbean became effective in 1905, when the United States took over the management of tariff collections in the Dominican Republic (treaty later)
  • TR—“We shall intervene to prevent you from intervening” (preemptive stroke)
  • The new corollary was used to justify wholesale interventions and repeated landings of the marines, which helped turn the Caribbean into a “Yankee lake”
  • The shadow of the big stick fell on Cuba in 1906; revolutionary disorders brought an appeal from the Cuban president, and “necessity being the mother of invention,” U.S. Marines were landed

Roosevelt on the World Stage

  • Outbreak of war between Russia and Japan in 1904 gave him a chance to be a global statesman
  • Russia was seeking China’s Manchuria (Port Arthur) and Japan saw this as a threat
  • Russian troops had invaded Manchuria during the Boxer rebellion and had not withdrew them
  • The Japanese suddenly began war in 1904 (railroad) and proceeded to administer a humiliating series of beatings to the inept Russians—the first serous military setback to a European power
  • As war dragged on, Japan began to run short of men and money and officials approached Roosevelt in deep secrecy and asked him to help sponsor peace negotiations
  • At Portsmouth, NH in 1905, Japanese presented demands for a huge indemnity and island of Sakhalin, while Russians refused to admit defeat—Japanese ended up with no money and land
  • Roosevelt received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1906 but diplomatic glory had its toll on the US
  • American relations with Russia had soured as Russians accused Roosevelt of robbing victory
  • Japan and America became rivals in Asia, as fear and jealousy between them grew

Japanese Laborers in California

  • Japanese government prohibited emigration of its citizens until 1884, when it began to allow temporary laborers to work on sugar plantations in Hawaii
  • Thousands of Japanese were recruited for work in California as farm laborers, workers, servants
  • Japanese immigrants did the nation’s arduous work but were barred from becoming citizens
  • Like the Chinese, Japanese immigrants confronted racist hostility
  • In 1906 San Francisco’s school board ordered the segregation of Chinese, Japanese, and Korean students in a special school to free more space for whites (after a devastating fire and earthquake)
  • The people of Japan regarded this discrimination as an insult to them and their children
  • On both sides of the Pacific, war talk sizzled in the yellow press (“yellow peril”)
  • After inviting the SF Board of Education to the White House, he broke the deadlock
  • The Californians came to accept the “Gentlemen’s Agreement”—school order repealed and Japanese agreed to stop the flow of laborers to the American mainland (fear of Japanese?)
  • Roosevelt used the big stick and sent his entire battleship fleet on a voyage around the world
  • Great White Fleet received welcomes in Latin America, Hawaii, New Zealand, and Australia
  • Overwhelming reception in Japan was the high point of the trip; in the warm diplomatic atmosphere created by the visit of the fleet, the Root-Takahira agreement of 1908 was reached
  • The US and Japan pledged themselves to respect each other’s territorial possessions in the Pacific and to uphold the Open Door in China (battleship cruise—contribution to peace)

You just finished Chapter 28: America on the World Stage, 1899-1909. Nice work!

Tip: Use ← → keys to navigate!

How to cite this note (MLA)

Aboukhadijeh, Feross. "Chapter 28: America on the World Stage, 1899-1909" StudyNotes.org. Study Notes, LLC., 17 Nov. 2012. Web. 26 May. 2024. <https://www.apstudynotes.org/us-history/outlines/chapter-28-america-on-the-world-stage-1899-1909/>.