AP U.S. History Notes

Chapter 28: America on the World Stage, 1899-1909

“Little Brown Brothers” in the Philippines

  • The Senate refused to pass a resolution granting Filipino independence and bitterness toward American troops erupted into open insurrection in 1899 under Emilio Aguinaldo
  • As Filipino armies were defeated, they melted into the jungle to wage guerrilla warfare
  • Atrocity tales shocked and rocked the United States (reconcentration camps established)
  • The backbone of the Filipino insurrection was broken in 1901 with the capture of Aguinaldo
  • President McKinley appointed the Philippine Commission to act as a sort of government
  • At its head was William H. Taft who called the Filipinos his “little grown brothers”
  • Millions poured in to improve roads, sanitation, and public health (sugar trade)
  • The Filipinos hated compulsory Americanization and preferred liberty (July 1946)

Hinging the Open Door in China

  • Following China’s defeat by Japan in 1895, imperialistic European powers moved in
  • A growing group of Americans viewed the vivisection of China with alarm (Manchu dynasty)
  • Churches worried about missionaries, Chinese markets, American public nudged Washington
  • >
  • Secretary of State John Hay dispatched to all great powers the Open Door note (summer 1899)
  • He urged them to announce that in their spheres of influence they would respect certain Chinese rights and the ideal of fair competition (Open Door gained wide acceptance with public)
  • Italy alone accepted the Open Door unconditionally (only major power without land in China)
  • Britain, Germany, France, and Japan all accepted; Russia politely declined
  • In 1900 a super patriotic group known as the “Boxers” strove to drive out the “foreign devils”
  • A multinational rescue force arrived and quelled the rebellion—contrary to nation’s principles
  • The allied invaders had China pay an indemnity of $333 million—vastly excessive
  • Secretary Hay announced that the Open Door would embrace the territorial integrity of China

Imperialism or Bryanism in 1900?

  • President McKinley had won war, acquired rich estates, established the gold standard, prosperity
  • McKinley was renominated on a platform that endorsed prosperity, gold standard, and expansion
  • Teddy Roosevelt became a popular vice-presidential candidate (governor of New York)
  • William Jennings Bryan forced a silver plank down the throats of Democrats
  • Bryan assailed both imperialism and Republican-fostered trusts (Roosevelt toured the country)
  • Bryanites trumpeted their “paramount” issue of slavery while Republicans responded by charging that ”Bryanism,” not imperialism was paramount (no more prosperity with free-silver)
  • Victory for Republicans was not a mandate for or against imperialism (prosperity & protection)

TR: Brandisher of the Big Stick

  • William McKinley had served another six months when in September 1901, a deranged anarchist murdered him—Roosevelt became president at age forty-two, the youngest so far
  • Known for impulsiveness, he proclaimed that he would carry out the policies of his predecessor
  • The Rough Rider’s high-voltage energy was electrifying (“the tennis cabinet”)
  • Roosevelt never cased to preach the virile virtues and denounce civilized softness
  • “Speak softly and carry a big stick and you will go far”—if statesmen had big stick, they could work their will among foreign nations without shouting; shouting would do no good without it
  • His self-confidence merged with self-righteousness; he loved people and mingled with all ranks
  • A moralizer and reformer, Roosevelt preached virtue from the White House pulpit
  • TR had an enormous popular appeal because the common people saw the fiery champion in him
  • Roosevelt was a direct-actionists; he believed that president should lead and keep things moving

Colombia Blocks the Canal

  • Spanish-American War had emphasized need for a canal across the Central American isthmus
  • An isthmian canal would augment the strength of the navy by increasing its mobility
  • Waterway would make it easier to defense recent acquisitions (American merchant marine)
  • By Clayton-Bulwer Treaty, the US could not secure exclusive control over such a route (UK)
  • The British consented to the Hay-Pauncefote Treat in 1901 (US free hand to build canal)
  • French Canal Company was eager to salvage something from their failure at Panama
  • Bunau-Varilla offered holdings at $40 million (from $109) for New Panama Canal Company
  • Congress in June 1902 decided on the Panama route; Panama was unwilling part of Columbia
  • A treaty between the US and Colombian government granted the US a lease for a six-mile-wide zone in exchange for $10 million and an annual payment of $250,000 (Columbia rejected)
  • The “blackmailers of Bogota” were blocking the onward march of civilization

Uncle Sam Creates Puppet Panama

  • Bunau-Varilla was disturbed by prospect of losing money; Panamanians ripe for another revolt
  • He raised a tiny “patriot” army consisting of fire department and bought Colombian troops
  • The Panama revolution occurred on November 3, 1903 and Colombian troops were gathered to crush the uprising, but U.s. naval forces would not let them cross the isthmus
  • Roosevelt justified interference by interpretation of treaty of 1846 with Colombia
  • This pact obligated Washington to maintain “perfect neutrality” of the isthmus
  • Panama became outpost of US and Bunau-Varilla signed the Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty (same $)
  • Rough Rider became involved in the Panama affair and the European imperialists raised their eyebrows in scorn at America’s superior moral pretensions—Roosevelt’s “cowboy diplomacy”

Completing the Canal and Appeasing Colombia

  • The “rape” of Panama marked an ugly downward lurch in U.S. relations with Latin America
  • The era of the bullying “Big Brother” policy was brazenly launched
  • Roosevelt defended that he had received a “mandate from civilization” to start the canal
  • The Nicaragua route was about equally feasible but the presidential election of 1904 was coming
  • Active work was begun on “making the dirt fly” in 1904; organization was perfected under West Point engineer Colonel George Washington Goethals (who cared about sanitation)
  • In 1914 the colossal canal project was completed at an initial cost of about $400 million

TR’s Perversion of Monroe’s Doctrine

  • Nations such as Venezuela and the Dominican Republic owed to European creditors and seeking to force payment, German warships sank two Venezuelan boats in early 1903
  • Roosevelt feared that Germans or Britons might remain in Latin America (Monroe Doctrine)
  • Roosevelt devised the policy of “preventive intervention”—Roosevelt Corollary to M.D.
  • Brandishing of the big stick in the Caribbean became effective in 1905, when the United States took over the management of tariff collections in the Dominican Republic (treaty later)
  • TR—“We shall intervene to prevent you from intervening” (preemptive stroke)
  • The new corollary was used to justify wholesale interventions and repeated landings of the marines, which helped turn the Caribbean into a “Yankee lake”
  • The shadow of the big stick fell on Cuba in 1906; revolutionary disorders brought an appeal from the Cuban president, and “necessity being the mother of invention,” U.S. Marines were landed

Roosevelt on the World Stage

  • Outbreak of war between Russia and Japan in 1904 gave him a chance to be a global statesman
  • Russia was seeking China’s Manchuria (Port Arthur) and Japan saw this as a threat
  • Russian troops had invaded Manchuria during the Boxer rebellion and had not withdrew them
  • The Japanese suddenly began war in 1904 (railroad) and proceeded to administer a humiliating series of beatings to the inept Russians—the first serous military setback to a European power
  • As war dragged on, Japan began to run short of men and money and officials approached Roosevelt in deep secrecy and asked him to help sponsor peace negotiations
  • At Portsmouth, NH in 1905, Japanese presented demands for a huge indemnity and island of Sakhalin, while Russians refused to admit defeat—Japanese ended up with no money and land
  • Roosevelt received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1906 but diplomatic glory had its toll on the US
  • American relations with Russia had soured as Russians accused Roosevelt of robbing victory
  • Japan and America became rivals in Asia, as fear and jealousy between them grew

Japanese Laborers in California

  • Japanese government prohibited emigration of its citizens until 1884, when it began to allow temporary laborers to work on sugar plantations in Hawaii
  • Thousands of Japanese were recruited for work in California as farm laborers, workers, servants
  • Japanese immigrants did the nation’s arduous work but were barred from becoming citizens
  • Like the Chinese, Japanese immigrants confronted racist hostility
  • In 1906 San Francisco’s school board ordered the segregation of Chinese, Japanese, and Korean students in a special school to free more space for whites (after a devastating fire and earthquake)
  • The people of Japan regarded this discrimination as an insult to them and their children
  • On both sides of the Pacific, war talk sizzled in the yellow press (“yellow peril”)
  • After inviting the SF Board of Education to the White House, he broke the deadlock
  • The Californians came to accept the “Gentlemen’s Agreement”—school order repealed and Japanese agreed to stop the flow of laborers to the American mainland (fear of Japanese?)
  • Roosevelt used the big stick and sent his entire battleship fleet on a voyage around the world
  • Great White Fleet received welcomes in Latin America, Hawaii, New Zealand, and Australia
  • Overwhelming reception in Japan was the high point of the trip; in the warm diplomatic atmosphere created by the visit of the fleet, the Root-Takahira agreement of 1908 was reached
  • The US and Japan pledged themselves to respect each other’s territorial possessions in the Pacific and to uphold the Open Door in China (battleship cruise—contribution to peace)

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How to cite this note (MLA)

Aboukhadijeh, Feross. "Chapter 28: America on the World Stage, 1899-1909" StudyNotes.org. Study Notes, LLC., 17 Nov. 2012. Web. 17 Dec. 2017. <https://www.apstudynotes.org/us-history/outlines/chapter-28-america-on-the-world-stage-1899-1909/>.
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