chapter 14 key terms
when: early 7th century C.E.
he followed his older brother into a monastery
he defied the empire that ordered that subjects were forbidden to travel beyond Chinese borders
destination was India
wanted to study with knowledgeable Buddhist teachers and sages to learn about Buddhism from the purest sources.
his guide abandoned him in the Gobi desert
made his way to the oasis town of Turpan
the buddhist ruler gave him supplied to support his mission
crossed three high mountain ranges
faced attacks by bandits, as well as confrontations with demons, dragons, and evil spirits.
arrived in india (in 630) and stayed for 12+ years
when he returned home, even though he violated the ban on traveling, he received a hero’s welcome and an audience with the emperor.
translated Buddhist treatises into Chinese and clarifying their doctrines
who: yang zian (first emperor ) and Sui Yagndi (second emperor)
military expeditions into central Asia and southern China
by 589 the house of Sui ruled all of China
placed enourmous demands on their dubjects in the course of buildinga strong, centralized government
ordered the construction of palaces and granaries
dispatched military forces to central Asia and Korea levied high taxes, and demanded compulsotory labor services.
when: 589-618 C.E.
who: Tang Taizong
after the seath of Sui Yangdi, a rebel leader proclaimed himself as emperor
he was ruthless
created extensive networks of transportation and communications
they allocated land according to needs
had a bureacuracy of merit and civil service exams
when: 618-907 C.E.
when: mid 8th century
casual and careless elading brought the dynasty to a crisis and it never recovered
An Lushan, a foremost military commander mounted a rebellion and captured the capital at Chang’an (755)
short lived because he was murdered by a soldier (757)
rebellion let the dynasty in a weakened state
tang commanders couldn’t defeat rebellious forces so they callled in help from the Uighurs
Uighurs demanded the right to the capitals after their help
tang never regained control of affairs after the crisis
imperial armies couldn't resist Turkish peoples and eventually the last Tang emperor abdicated his throne and the dynasty came to an end.
who: the first Song emperor
when: he reigned from 960-976 C.E.
began his career as a junior military offifcer serving one of the most powerful warlords in northern China
reputation for honesty and effectiveness
his army subjected the warlords to their authority and consolidated Song control thorughout China
persuaded his generals to retire honorably to a life of leisure
organized a centralized administration that placed military forces under tight supervision
regarded all state officials as servants of the imperial government
reward these officials handsomely
expanded the bureaucracy based on merit by creating more opportunities for individuals to seek a Confucian education and take civil service exams
provided generous salaries for those who qualified for government appointments
placed civil bureaucrats in charge of military forces.
they had financial problems and the high salaries devoured surplus
Song dynasty moved to the south
development of fast ripening crops increased food supplies
found in Vietnam when they encountered strains of fast-ripening rice that enabled cultivators to harvest two crops per year
once it was introduced to fields in southern China, fast ripening rice quickly resulted in an expanding supply of food.
new agricultural techniques
heavy iron plows
enriched the soil with manure and composted organic matter
extensive irrigation systems
extended cultivation to difficult terrains
expanded china’s agricultural potential
involved tightly wrapping girls feet with strips of cloth that prevented natural growth of bones and resulted in malformed, curved feet.
the girs could not walk easily or naturally
needed canes to walk
never became universal but wealthy families and some peasant families did it to enhance their attractiveness and gain control over the girls’ behavior.
similar to veiling women in Mediterranean and Muslim lands
diffused rapidly andspread to Abbasid craft workers
chinese exported vast quantities of porcelain
fine porcelin has come to generally be known as chinaware
increased ten times from ninth to twelfth centuries
increased supply of iron and steel went into weaponry and agricultural tools
Daoist alchemists discovered how to make gunpowder during the Tang dynasty
limited military effectiveness
diffused through Eurasia
made it possible to produce texts quickly, cheaply, and in huge quantities
developed from wood blocks to movable type
chinese seafarers sailed ships fastened with iron nails, waterproofed with oils, furnished wiht watertight bulkheads, driven by canvas and bamboo sails, steered by rudders, and navigated with the aid of the “south pointed needle” aka the magnetic compass
magnetic compass soon became the common property of mariners throughout the Indian Ocean basin
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