Foundations 14% of the AP Exam
Climate has been a major factor in determining where people settled. Peopled settled in areas that has climates that would
accommodate agriculture and livestock.
• The Paleolithic Age refers to about 12,000 BC. During this time people were nomadic.
• The Neolithic Age refers to the age from about 12,000 BC to about 8000 BC. It is during this time that people settled in
communities and civilization began to emerge.
• River Valley Civilizations refers to about 3500 to 1500 BC. The major River Valleys are described below.
• Classical Civilizations refers to about 1000 BC to 600 CE. The major civilizations to emerge were Zhou and Han China,
Greece and Rome, and the Gupta Empire.
THE RIVER-VALLEY CIVILIZATIONS
Each early civilization developed its own unique ways of life, but they all shared some common characteristics
• Complex irrigation systems
• legal codes
• art and written literature
• More formal scientific knowledge, numbering systems, and calendars
• Intensification of social inequality
COMPARISONS OF EARLY RIVER VALLEY CIVILIZATIONS
MESOPOTAMIA (developed by 3500 BCE):
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