AP World History Notes

Unit 1 Foundations: Cram Packet

Foundations 14% of the AP Exam

Climate has been a major factor in determining where people settled. Peopled settled in areas that has climates that would 
accommodate agriculture and livestock. 
Time Periods
• The Paleolithic Age refers to about 12,000 BC. During this time people were nomadic. 
• The Neolithic Age refers to the age from about 12,000 BC to about 8000 BC. It is during this time that people settled in 
communities and civilization began to emerge. 
• River Valley Civilizations refers to about 3500 to 1500 BC. The major River Valleys are described below. 
• Classical Civilizations refers to about 1000 BC to 600 CE. The major civilizations to emerge were Zhou and Han China, 
Greece and Rome, and the Gupta Empire.

Each early civilization developed its own unique ways of life, but they all shared some common characteristics 
Complex irrigation systems 
legal codes 
art and written literature 
• More formal scientific knowledge, numbering systems, and calendars 
• Intensification of social inequality

MESOPOTAMIA (developed by 3500 BCE):

  • Culture: Cuneiform; Extensive trade with Egypt and the Indus Valley; Epic of Gilgamesh; Early use of bronze tools, chariots; Advanced astronomy; math based on 60; Pessimistic view of world, perhaps due to irregular, unpredictable flooding of the rivers; Polytheism - gods powerful and often cruel; Kings powerful, but not divine 
  • Political Organization: City-states and warrior kings; Hammurabi's Code; Competition among city states as well as frequent invasions led to less political stability than in Egypt
  • Social Structure: Job specialization - farmers, metallurgist, 
    merchants, craftsmen, political 
    administrators, priests; 
    Social classes; 
    Marriage contracts, veils for women; 
    women of upper classes less equal than 
    lower class counterparts

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How to cite this note (MLA)

Aboukhadijeh, Feross. "Unit 1 Foundations: Cram Packet" StudyNotes.org. Study Notes, LLC., 16 Nov. 2014. Web. 13 Jul. 2024. <https://www.apstudynotes.org/world-history/outlines/unit-1-foundations-cram-packet/>.