AP Psychology Notes

Chapter 11: Testing and Individual Differences

  1. Standardization and Norms
    1. Terms
      1. Standardized test
        1. the test items have been piloted on a similar population of people as those who are meant to take the test
        2. achievement norms have been established
      2. ​​​Standardization sample
        1. those people taking a standardized test on a certain day
        2. they are fairly representative of the entire population who will take that test
      3. Psychometricians
        1. people who make tests
    2. ​​Principles
      1. the purpose of tests is to distinguish between people
      2. the goal of standardization is to yield equivalent exams
  2. ​​Reliability and Validity
    1. Reliability
      1. Split-half reliability
        1. randomly divide a test into two sections
        2. correlate people’s performance on the two halves
        3. correlation coefficient: the closer to +1, the more reliable
      2. Equivalent-form reliability
        1. test is available in several equivalent forms
        2. the correlation between performance on the different forms of the test
      3. Test-retest reliability
        1. the correlation between a person’s score on one administration of the test with the same person’s score on another administration
    2. ​​Validity
      1. A test can be reliable and not valid, but not vice versa
      2. Content validity
        1. how well a measure reflects the entire range of material it’s supposed to be testing
          1. face validity
            1. a superficial measure of accuracy
      3. ​​​Criterion-related validity
        1. concurrent validity
          1. measures how much of a characteristic a person has now
        2. predictive validity
          1. a measure of future performance
      4. ​​Construct validity
        1. if a measure of perfect validity exists, we can correlate performance on it with a new measure
        2. the higher the correlation, the more construct validity the new measure has
  3. Types of Tests
    1. Aptitude vs. Achievement
      1. Aptitude tests
        1. measure ability and potential
      2. Achievement tests
        1. measure what one has learned or accomplished
      3. ​A test that exclusively measures one is impossible
    2. Speed vs. Power
      1. Speed tests
        1. consist of a large number of questions asked in a short amount of time
        2. goal
          1. ​​to see how quickly you can solve problems
      2. ​​Power tests
        1. consist of items of increasing difficulty
        2. sufficient time given
        3. goal
          1. to determine ceiling difficulty level
    3. ​​​Group vs. Individual
      1. Group tests
        1. administered to a large number of people at once
        2. interaction between examiner and test takers minimal
        3. less expensive, more objective
      2. Individual tests
        1. involve greater interaction between examiner and examinee
  4. Theories of Intelligence
    1. Fluid vs. Crystallized
      1. Fluid intelligence
        1. our ability to solve abstract problems and pick up new information and skills
        2. decreases with age
      2. ​​​Crystallized intelligence
        1. involves using knowledge accumulated over time
        2. may increase with age
    2. ​​Charles Spearman
      1. Intelligence can be expressed as a single factor
      2. Used factor analysis
        1. conclusion
          1. s- specific abilities that people regard as different types of intelligence
          2. g- general. underlies every s
    3. ​​​L.L. Thurstone and J.P. Guilford
      1. Thurstone
        1. primary mental abilities theory
          1. intelligence is comprised of seven main abilities
      2. ​​Guilford
        1. over 100 mental abilities exist
    4. ​​Howard Gardner
      1. Multiple intelligences
        1. linguistic, logical-mathematical, spatial, musical, bodily-kinesthetic, intrapersonal, interpersonal, naturalist
    5. ​​Daniel Goleman
      1. Emotional intelligence (EQ)
        1. similar to interpersonal and intrapersonal intelligence
    6. ​​Robert Sternberg
      1. Sternberg’s triarchic theory
        1. three types of intelligence
        2. componential/analytic intelligence
          1. ability to compare and contrast, explain, and analyze
        3. experimental/creative intelligence
          1. ability to use knowledge and experiences in new, innovative ways
        4. contextual/practical intelligence
          1. street smarts
          2. ability to apply what you know to real world situations
  5. Intelligence Tests
    1. Stanford-Binet IQ Test
      1. Alfred Binet
        1. Frenchman
        2. ​​created a standardized test to identify which children needed special attention
        3. mental age
          1. an idea that supposes that intelligence increases with age
          2. average 10 year old has mental age of 10
      2. ​​Louis Terman
        1. a Stanford professor
        2. ​​used Binet’s system to create the concept of IQ and the test
        3. how to measure IQ
          1. (mental age ÷ chronological age) x 100
        4. all adults  =  age 20
    2. ​​The Weschler
      1. Weschler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)
        1. used for adults
      2. Weschler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC)
        1. used for ages 6-16
      3. Weschler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI)
        1. used for children as young as four
      4. Yields scores:
        1. based on deviation IQ
          1. mean = 100
          2. standard deviation = 15
      5. ​​​​Eleven subscales
        1. verbal- 6 combined
        2. performance IQ- 5
        3. total IQ- 11
  6. Nature vs. Nurture
    1. Heritability
      1. How much of a trait’s variation results from genetic factors
      2. Ranges from 0 to 1
        1. 0 = environment totally responsible
        2. 1 = totally genetic
    2. ​​Miscellaneous
      1. Within- group differences are typically larger than between group differences

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Aboukhadijeh, Feross. "Chapter 11: Testing and Individual Differences" StudyNotes.org. Study Notes, LLC., 12 Oct. 2013. Web. 02 Mar. 2024. <https://www.apstudynotes.org/psychology/outlines/chapter-11-testing-and-individual/>.