AP U.S. History Notes

Chapter 10: Launching the New Ship of State, 1789-1800

census - An official count of population; in the United States, the federal census occurs every ten  years.  “…the first official census of 1790 recorded almost 4 million people.”

public debt - The debt of a government or nation to individual creditors, also called the national debt. “…the public debt…was mountainous.”

cabinet - The body of official advisers to the head of a government; in the United States, it consists of the heads of the major executive departments. “The Constitution does not mention a cabinet…”

circuit court - A court that hears cases in several designated locations rather than a single place. “The act organized…federal district and circuit courts…”

fiscal - Concerning public finances-expenditures and revenues. “His plan was to shape the fiscal policies of the administration…”

assumption - The appropriation or taking on of obligations not originally one’s own. “The secretary made a convincing case for ‘assumption.’”

excise - A tax on the manufacture, sale, or consumption of certain products. “Hamilton…secured from Congress an excise tax on a few domestic items, notably whiskey.”

stock - The shares of capital ownership gained from investing in a corporate enterprise; the term also refers to the certificates representing such shares. “Stock was thrown open to public sale.”

medium of exchange - Any item, paper or otherwise, used as money.  “They regarded [whiskey] as a …medium of exchange.”

despotism - Arbitrary or tyrannical rule. “The American people, loving liberty and deploring despotism, were pleased.”

impress - To force people or property into public service without choice. “They…impressed scored of seamen into service on English vessels…”

assimilation - The merging of diverse cultures or peoples into one. “The drastic new law violated the traditional American policy…speedy assimilation.”

witch-hunt - An investigation carried on with much publicity, supposedly to uncover dangerous activity but actually intended to weaken the political opposition. “Anti-French hysteria played directly into the hands of witch-hunting conservatives.”

compact - An agreement or covenant between states to perform some legal act. “Both Jefferson and Madison stressed the compact theory…”

nullification - In American politics, the assertion that a state may legally invalidate a federal act deemed inconsistent with its rights or sovereignty. “[The] resolutions concluded that…’nullification’ was the ‘rightful remedy.’”

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How to cite this note (MLA)

Aboukhadijeh, Feross. "Chapter 10: Launching the New Ship of State, 1789-1800" StudyNotes.org. Study Notes, LLC., 17 Nov. 2012. Web. 23 Jun. 2024. <https://www.apstudynotes.org/us-history/vocabulary/chapter-10-launching-the-new-ship-of-state/>.