progressive - In politics, one who believes in continuing progress, improvement, or reform. “The new crusaders, who called themselves ‘progressives,’ waged war on many evil….”
exposé - A disclosure or revelation considered embarrassing to those involved “… Ida M. Tarbell… published a devastating but factual exposé of the Standard Oil Company.”
direct primary - In politics, the nomination of a party’s candidates for office through a special election of that party’s voters. “… ardent reformers pushed for direct primary elections….”
initiative - In politics, the procedure whereby voters can, through petition, present proposed legislation directly to the electorate. “They favored the ‘initiative’ so that voters could directly propose legislation….”
referendum - The submission of a law, proposed or already in effect, to a direct vote of the electorate. “Progressives also agitated for the ‘referendum.’ ”
recall - In politics, a procedure for removing an official from office through popular election or other means. “The ‘recall’ would enable the voters to remove faithless elected officials….”
city manager - An administrator appointed by the city council or other elected body to manage affairs, supposedly in a nonpartisan or professional way. “Other communities adopted the city manager system….”
slumlord - A landlord who owns and profits from slum properties, often by charging excessive rents or neglecting maintenance and repairs. “Urban reformers likewise attacked ‘slumlords.’…”
red-light district - A section of a city where prostitution is officially or unofficially tolerated. “… wide-open prostitution (vice-at-a-price) … flourished in red-light districts….”
franchise - In government, a special privilege or license granted to a company or group to perform a specific function. “Public-spirited city-dwellers also moved to halt the corrupt sale of franchise for streetcars….”
negligence - In law, the failure to take a reasonable care, resulting in injury to another person. “… workmen’s compensation laws… reliev[ed] the injured laborer from the burden of lawsuits to prove negligence….”
reclamation - The process of bringing or restoring wasteland to productive use. “Settlers repaid the cost of reclamation….”
collectivism - A political or social system in which individuals are subordinated to mass organization and direction. “He strenuously sought the middle road between unbridled individualism and paternalistic collectivism.”
insubordination - Deliberate disobedience to proper authority. “…Taft dismissed Pinchot on the narrow grounds of insubordination….”
You just finished Chapter 31: Progressivism and the Republican Roosevelt, 1901- 1912. Nice work!
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